Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage is legal in only 36 countries.

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  • Legal
  • Civil unions (marriage rights)
  • Civil unions (limited rights)
  • Other type of partnership
  • Foreign same-sex marriages recognized only
  • Unregistered cohabitation
  • Unrecognized
  • Banned
  • Varies by region or ambiguous
  • Unknown or N/A

Recent Changes

  • Jan 1 2025Became Legal in region
  • Jul 1 2024Became Civil unions (limited rights) in region
  • Feb 15 2024Became Legal in region
  • Jan 1 2024Became Legal in region
  • Oct 17 2023Became Unregistered cohabitation in region
  • Sep 5 2023Became Civil unions (marriage rights) in region
  • Sep 5 2023Became Banned in region
  • Jun 23 2023Became Banned in region

Same-sex marriage

Marriage and marriage recognition between two people of the same biological sex and/or gender identity.

Summary

36
Legal
36 regions (18%)
Legal
77
Somewhere in between
77 regions (39%)
Somewhere in between
82
Illegal
82 regions (41%)
Illegal
3
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
3 regions (2%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
Europe
42%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
21 regions (42%)
Somewhere in between
18 regions (36%)
Illegal
11 regions (22%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
regions (0%)
Oceania
14%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
2 regions (14%)
Somewhere in between
7 regions (50%)
Illegal
5 regions (36%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
regions (0%)
South America
50%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
6 regions (50%)
Somewhere in between
3 regions (25%)
Illegal
3 regions (25%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
regions (0%)
North America
22%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
5 regions (22%)
Somewhere in between
13 regions (57%)
Illegal
5 regions (22%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
regions (0%)
Africa
2%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
1 regions (2%)
Somewhere in between
19 regions (35%)
Illegal
34 regions (63%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
regions (0%)
Asia
2%
LEGAL EQUALITY
Legal
1 regions (2%)
Somewhere in between
17 regions (39%)
Illegal
24 regions (55%)
No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous
2 regions (5%)

Progress Over Time

Number of countries with equality for same-sex marriage over the past 24 years.

Same-sex marriage by Country

Legal

Same-sex marriage is legal in 36 regions.

  1. Asia (1)
  2. Taiwan 2019
  3. Europe (21)
  4. Andorra 2023
  5. Austria 2019
  6. Belgium 2003
  7. Denmark 2012
  8. Estonia 2024
  9. Finland 2017
  10. France 2013
  11. Germany 2017
  12. Greece 2024
  13. Iceland 2010
  14. Ireland 2015
  15. Luxembourg 2015
  16. Malta 2017
  17. Netherlands 2001
  18. Norway 2009
  19. Portugal 2010
  20. Slovenia 2022
  21. Spain 2005
  22. Sweden 2009
  23. Switzerland 2022
  24. United Kingdom 2020
  25. North America (5)
  26. Canada 2005
  27. Costa Rica 2020
  28. Cuba 2022
  29. Mexico 2022
  30. United States 2015
  31. Africa (1)
  32. South Africa 2006
  33. Oceania (2)
  34. Australia 2017
  35. New Zealand 2013
  36. South America (6)
  37. Argentina 2010
  38. Brazil 2013
  39. Chile 2022
  40. Colombia 2016
  41. Ecuador 2019
  42. Uruguay 2013

Civil unions (marriage rights)

Same-sex marriage is civil unions (marriage rights) in 7 regions.

  1. Europe (6)
  2. Croatia 2014
  3. Cyprus 2015
  4. Hungary 2009
  5. Italy 2016
  6. Liechtenstein 2011
  7. San Marino 2018
  8. South America (1)
  9. Bolivia 2020

Civil unions (limited rights)

Same-sex marriage is civil unions (limited rights) in 5 regions.

  1. Asia (1)
  2. Japan 2015
  3. Europe (4)
  4. Czech Republic 2006
  5. Latvia 2022
  6. Monaco 2020
  7. Montenegro 2021

Other type of partnership

Same-sex marriage is other type of partnership in 1 regions.

  1. Asia (1)
  2. China 2017

Foreign same-sex marriages recognized only

Same-sex marriage is foreign same-sex marriages recognized only in 7 regions.

  1. Asia (1)
  2. Israel 2022
  3. Africa (1)
  4. Namibia 2023
  5. South America (1)
  6. Peru 2006

Unregistered cohabitation

Same-sex marriage is unregistered cohabitation in 4 regions.

  1. Asia (2)
  2. India 2023
  3. Thailand
  4. Europe (2)
  5. Poland 2012
  6. Slovakia 2018

Banned

Same-sex marriage is banned in 82 regions.

  1. Europe (11)
  2. Armenia 2004
  3. Belarus 1996
  4. Bulgaria
  5. Georgia
  6. Lithuania 1992
  7. Moldova 1994
  8. Romania 2009
  9. Russia 1995
  10. Serbia 2006
  11. Ukraine 2022
  12. Vatican City 2020
  13. North America (5)
  14. Bahamas
  15. Haiti
  16. Honduras 2005
  17. Jamaica 2011
  18. Panama 1972
  19. Oceania (5)
  20. Fiji 2002
  21. Palau 2008
  22. Solomon Islands 1978
  23. Tonga 1998
  24. Tuvalu 2023
  25. South America (3)
  26. Guyana
  27. Paraguay 1991
  28. Venezuela 1999

No data, no laws, N/A, or ambiguous

Data on same-sex marriage is unclear, not applicable, or missing in 3 regions.

  1. Antarctica (1)
  2. Antarctica

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