💬 NEW! Join Equaldex's LGBTQ+ Discord to discuss LGBT rights and chat!

LGBT Rights in Turkey

    Homosexuality
    ✔ Legal
    Gay Marriage
    ✖ Unrecognized
    Censorship
    ✖ State-enforced
    Changing Gender
    ✔ Legal, surgery not required
    Non-binary gender recognition
    ✖ Not legally recognized
    Discrimination
    ✔ Illegal
    Employment Discrimination
    ✖ Sexual orientation only
    Housing Discrimination
    ✖ No protections
    Adoption
    ✖ Single only
    Military
    ✖ Illegal
    Donating Blood
    ✖ Banned (indefinite deferral)
    Conversion Therapy
    ✖ Not banned
    Age of Consent
    ✔ Equal
Suggest Public Opinion Data

Public Opinion

Views on same-sex marriage or other legal recognition

Ranked #25 out of 27 regions surveyed. (Source: Ipsos, April–May, 2021)
(25%) Against
Support (43%)

Views on same-sex couples' right to adopt

Ranked #23 out of 27 regions surveyed. (Source: Ipsos, April–May, 2021)
(44%) Disagree
Agree (39%)

Acceptance of homosexuals as neighbors ?

Ranked #70 out of 79 regions surveyed. (Source: World Values Survey, 2017-2020)
(75.8%) Mentioned homosexuals
Did not mention homosexuals (20.7%)

Justifiability of homosexuality ?

Ranked #61 out of 79 regions surveyed. (Source: World Values Survey, 2017-2020)
(78.1%) Not justifiable
Justifiable (5.2%)

Opinion on same-sex couples as parents ?

Ranked #49 out of 74 regions surveyed. (Source: World Values Survey, 2017-2020)
(54.1%) Disagree
Agree (16.6%)

"Should society accept homosexuality?" (2019) ?

Ranked #27 out of 34 regions surveyed. (Source: Pew Research Center, May–October, 2019)
(57%) No
Yes (25%)

"Should society accept homosexuality?" (2013) ?

Ranked #27 out of 39 regions surveyed. (Source: Pew Research Center, June, 2013)
(78%) No
Yes (9%)

Perceived Acceptance of Gay People ?

Ranked #79 out of 119 regions surveyed. (Source: Gallup, 2013)
(68%) Not a good place
Good place (11%)

By The Numbers

45%
Turkish people thought that LGBT+ people should have equal rights.
11.2%
of Turkish people think homosexuality should not be a criminal act
(Konda, 2012)
84%
of Turkish people do not want to live with LGBT neighbors

History

Homosexual activity in Turkey

?

Homosexual activity in Turkey is legal.

Current status
Since Aug 9, 1858
Legal
The Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of Turkey, decriminalized sodomy in 1858.
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

1515–Aug 9, 1858
Male illegal, female legal
It was illegal in Ottoman Empire until 1858. Oldest finding about banning homosexualty in Ottoman Empire were from 1515.
Added by Buzdolabimotoru  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until 1515
Illegal (death penalty as punishment)
Following the expansion of the Mongol Empire, the Turks were to a certain extent affiliated with the ruling nation. The social organization of Mongol and Turkish tribes was based upon clan customs, its inner ways and habits were regulated by customary law.

In the 13 century, Chingis Kahn established the Yasa, or Code of Laws and Ordinances, which his successors continued to rule by. Although some scholars suspect Chingis Khan's Yasa only codified existing customary law others believe it served to supplement and fill any gaps left by customary law, especially in criminal law.

According to fragments from the Egyptian Historian Makrizi, sodomy was punishable by death as an offense against religion, morals, and established customs.

Adultery was similarly defined as a crime punishable by death. Marriage was demarcated by a law that ordained "that the man should buy his wife" and hence prescribed strict gender roles on family operation.
Sources:
tengriciturkiye.blogspot.co…

Vernadsky, G. (1938). The Scope and Contents of Chingis Khan’s Yasa. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 3(3/4), 337–360. doi: 10.2307/2717841
scholar.harvard.edu/files/f…
Added by Buzdolabimotoru  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Same-sex marriage in Turkey

?

Same-sex marriage in Turkey is unrecognized.

Current status
Unrecognized
Turkey does not legally recognize same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnership benefits.
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Oct 29, 1923–Sep 8, 2018
Foreign same-sex marriages recognized only
Civil Unions pending. Under review by a Turkish high court to see if spouses are entitled for visas.
Added by Ausyk  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Censorship of LGBT Issues in Turkey

?

Censorship of LGBT Issues in Turkey is state-enforced.

Current status
State-enforced
Pride parades and related public events are blocked in Turkey, with law enforcement intervening.

Turkey’s Ministry of Industry and Commerce requires online shops to mark LGBT-themed products with a minimum age of 18+. Companies who do not comply have their advertising suspended.
Board members of the ministry agreed that not listing such products with a warning risks children’s ”mental, psychological and social development”.
Added by equaldex  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Right to change legal gender in Turkey

?

Right to change legal gender in Turkey is legal, surgery not required.

Current status
Since Nov 30, 2017
Legal, surgery not required
Turkey’s Constitutional Court found the the provision that required surgery to change one's legal gender unconstitutional.
Sterilization is still required.
Added by Buzdolabimotoru  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

May 10, 2015–Nov 30, 2017
Legal, but requires surgery
Legal, but requires surgery and sterilization.
Added by Ausyk  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

May 4, 1988–Nov 30, 2017
Legal, but requires surgery
Never was banned, officially legalized in 1988. In Turkey, the minimum age required to get sex reassignment surgery is 18. In order for one to legally change their gender, the surgery must be conducted at a state hospital.
Sources:
duvarenglish.com/health-2/2…~:text=Filiz%20Gazi%2F%20DUVAR-,In%20Turkey%2C%20the%20minimum%20age%20required%20to%20get%20sex%20reassignment,%2C%20Ankara%2C%20Izmir%20and%20Antalya.
Added by vviet93  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until May 10, 2015
Ambiguous
The status is unknown.
Sources:
[Entry is a removal candidate]
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Legal recognition of non-binary gender in Turkey

?

Legal recognition of non-binary gender in Turkey is not legally recognized.

Current status
Not legally recognized
Not currently recognized in Turkey.
Added by Notdog1996  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

LGBT discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT discrimination in Turkey is illegal.

Current status
Since Nov 2, 2016
Illegal
Banned as Hate Speech law but mostly not enforced. In 15 November 2022 Bullying children in schools is prohibited. Although the law does not specify any specifics, it is likely to include sexual orientation and identity.

Jul 16, 2014–Nov 2, 2016
Illegal in some contexts
Hate speech based on sexual orientation was included in the decisions of the Constitutional Court for the first time. The Constitutional Court stated that calling homosexuals "deviants" or "perverts" constitutes hate speech.
Added by Buzdolabimotoru  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until Jul 16, 2014
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.
Added by im_h_DEACTIVATED  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until Jul 16, 2014
No protections
There are not any protections for LGBT Turks. There is not any information about when this policy started.
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

LGBT employment discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT employment discrimination in Turkey is sexual orientation only.

Current status
Since Sep 24, 2018
Sexual orientation only
As a matter of fact , in the decision of the 22nd Civil Chamber of the Court of Cassation dated 24.09.2018 and numbered 2015/35120 Main, 2018/19675 , it is emphasized that discrimination due to the sexual orientation of the worker is within the scope of the prohibition (although the concept of "sexual preference" is used with an incorrect terminology) : The prohibition of discrimination can be added to this, due to the employee's sexual preference that does not cause any adverse effects in the workplace. Again, discrimination based on factors such as political reasons and worldview should be protected.”
Added by Buzdolabimotoru  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until Sep 24, 2018
No protections
Existing laws against employment discrimination are not enforced.
Added by im_h_DEACTIVATED  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Until Sep 24, 2018
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.
Added by Ausyk  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

LGBT housing discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT housing discrimination in Turkey is no protections.

Current status
Since Jan 1, 1858
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.
Added by Ausyk  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Same-sex adoption in Turkey

?

Same-sex adoption in Turkey is single only.

Current status
Single only
LGBT Turks are deemed unfit to be parents. However, it is unclear if there is legislation to support this. It is also unclear when this policy began. However, same-sex adoptions are not permitted in Turkey; Turkish authorities have attempted to reclaim Turkish children adopted into foreign countries by same-sex couples.
Sources:
dot429.com/articles/1468-tu…

Moderator note: second (and originally the only) source has been found broken while addressing a flag. If better source is found, please report!

southfloridagaynews.com/art…
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Jan 1, 2015–Sep 8, 2018
Single only
No laws in place for same sex couples.
Added by Ausyk  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Serving openly in military in Turkey

?

Serving openly in military in Turkey is illegal.

Current status
Illegal
Military personnel found to be homosexual are dismissed under laws that classify homosexuality as a "psychosexual disorder/illness".

Military service for 6 months is mandatory for all men in Turkey.
In order to be exempt, gay men must prove homosexuality by providing photographic evidence of them being on the receiving end of anal intercourse.
Sources:
ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-…
web.archive.org/web/2016052…//ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2009/tr_rapport_2009_en.pdf
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Blood donations by MSMs in Turkey

?

Blood donations by MSMs in Turkey is banned (indefinite deferral).

Current status
Since 1980
Banned (indefinite deferral)
Homosexual men in Turkey cannot donate blood. The Turkish Red Crescent considers homosexuality to be a risk factor for HIV/AIDS.
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Conversion therapy in Turkey

?

Conversion therapy in Turkey is not banned.

Current status
Not banned
There are no laws banning conversion therapies.
Sources:
Constitution of the Republic of Turkey.
Added by im_h_DEACTIVATED  ·  0 accurate votes  ·  Report Error  ·  Log

Equal age of consent in Turkey

?

Equal age of consent in Turkey is equal.

Current status
Since Aug 9, 1858
Equal
The age of consent of 18 years is equal for everyone.
Added by bradcoffey106  ·  1 accurate vote  ·  Report Error  ·  Log