Homosexuality
    ✔ Legal
    Gay Marriage
    ✖ Unrecognized
    Censorship
    ✖ State-enforced
    Changing Gender
    ✖ Legal, but requires surgery
    Gender-Affirming Care
    ✔ Legal
    Non-Binary Gender Recognition
    ✖ Not legally recognized
    Discrimination
    ✖ Illegal in some contexts
    Employment Discrimination
    ✖ Sexual orientation only
    Housing Discrimination
    ✖ No protections
    Adoption
    ✖ Single only
    Intersex Infant Surgery
    ✖ Not banned
    Military
    ✖ Illegal
    Donating Blood
    ✖ Banned (indefinite deferral)
    Conversion Therapy
    ✖ Not banned
    Age of Consent
    ✔ Equal
💬 Join Equaldex's LGBTQ+ Discord to discuss LGBT rights and chat!

Recent studies in Turkey show a discernible level of opposition to LGBTQ+ rights among the population.

Turkey Surveys

Survey

Turkish people thought that LGBT+ people should have equal rights.

Survey

(Konda, 2012)
of Turkish people think homosexuality should not be a criminal act

Survey

of Turkish people do not want to live with LGBT neighbors

Perception of LGBTQ+ People

Survey results from 13 LGBTQ+ Equaldex users who lived in or visited Turkey.

Overall

Overall

Perceived Safety*

Feel safe being open
Absence of verbal harassment
Absence of threats and violence
*Survey results represent personal perceptions of safety and may not be indicative of current actual conditions.

Equal Treatment

Treatment by peers
Treatment by family
Treatment at work
Treatment at school
Treatment by general public
Treatment by businesses
Treatment by law enforcement
Treatment by religious groups

Visibility & Representation

Inclusion in education
Representation in entertainment
Representation in news
Political support
Out public figures

Culture

Pride/events
Nightlife
Dating life
Interest groups and clubs

Services

Health and wellness
Gender-affirming care
Support and social services
Advocacy and legal

History

Homosexual activity in Turkey

?

Homosexual activity in Turkey is legal.

Current status
Since Aug 9, 1858
Legal
The Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of Turkey, decriminalized sodomy in 1858.
1515–Aug 9, 1858
Male illegal, female legal
It was illegal in Ottoman Empire until 1858. Oldest finding about banning homosexualty in Ottoman Empire were from 1515.
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Until 1515
Illegal (death penalty as punishment)
Following the expansion of the Mongol Empire, the Turks were to a certain extent affiliated with the ruling nation. The social organization of Mongol and Turkish tribes was based upon clan customs, its inner ways and habits were regulated by customary law.

In the 13 century, Chingis Kahn established the Yasa, or Code of Laws and Ordinances, which his successors continued to rule by. Although some scholars suspect Chingis Khan's Yasa only codified existing customary law others believe it served to supplement and fill any gaps left by customary law, especially in criminal law.

According to fragments from the Egyptian Historian Makrizi, sodomy was punishable by death as an offense against religion, morals, and established customs.

Adultery was similarly defined as a crime punishable by death. Marriage was demarcated by a law that ordained "that the man should buy his wife" and hence prescribed strict gender roles on family operation.
Sources:
tengriciturkiye.blogspot.co…

Vernadsky, G. (1938). The Scope and Contents of Chingis Khan’s Yasa. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 3(3/4), 337–360. doi: 10.2307/2717841
scholar.harvard.edu/files/f…
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Same-sex marriage in Turkey

?

Same-sex marriage in Turkey is unrecognized.

Current status
Unrecognized
Turkey does not legally recognize same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnership benefits.
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Censorship of LGBT issues in Turkey

?

Censorship of LGBT issues in Turkey is state-enforced.

Current status
State-enforced
Pride parades and related public events are blocked in Turkey, with law enforcement intervening.

Turkey’s Ministry of Industry and Commerce requires online shops to mark LGBT-themed products with a minimum age of 18+. Companies who do not comply have their advertising suspended.
Board members of the ministry agreed that not listing such products with a warning risks children’s ”mental, psychological and social development”.

Right to change legal gender in Turkey

?

Right to change legal gender in Turkey is legal, but requires surgery.

Current status
Since Nov 30, 2017
Legal, but requires surgery
The Constitutional Court annulled the provision of the Turkish Civil Code that regulates the condition of "being unable to reproduce" in order to allow gender reassignment. The request for annulment of the condition of having a gender reassignment surgery in order to change the identity card was rejected.
May 4, 1988–Nov 30, 2017
Legal, but requires surgery
Never was banned, officially legalized in 1988. In Turkey, the minimum age required to get sex reassignment surgery is 18. In order for one to legally change their gender, the surgery must be conducted at a state hospital.
Sources:
duvarenglish.com/health-2/2…~:text=Filiz%20Gazi%2F%20DUVAR-,In%20Turkey%2C%20the%20minimum%20age%20required%20to%20get%20sex%20reassignment,%2C%20Ankara%2C%20Izmir%20and%20Antalya.
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May 10, 2015–Nov 30, 2017
Legal, but requires surgery
Legal, but requires surgery and sterilization.

Gender-affirming care in Turkey

?

Gender-affirming care in Turkey is legal.

Current status
Since 2009
Legal
In 2009, Turkey adopted the ICD-10 classification, which contains codes for diagnosing transsexualism in adulthood and childhood, which authorize the initiation of medical transition.
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Legal recognition of non-binary gender in Turkey

?

Legal recognition of non-binary gender in Turkey is not legally recognized.

Current status
Not legally recognized
Not currently recognized in Turkey.
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LGBT discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT discrimination in Turkey is illegal in some contexts.

Current status
Since Nov 2, 2016
Illegal in some contexts
Banned as Hate Speech law but mostly not enforced. In 15 November 2022 Bullying children in schools is prohibited. Although the law does not specify any specifics, it is likely to include sexual orientation and identity.
Jul 16, 2014–Nov 2, 2016
Illegal in some contexts
Hate speech based on sexual orientation was included in the decisions of the Constitutional Court for the first time. The Constitutional Court stated that calling homosexuals "deviants" or "perverts" constitutes hate speech.
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Until Jul 16, 2014
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.

LGBT employment discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT employment discrimination in Turkey is sexual orientation only.

Current status
Since Sep 24, 2018
Sexual orientation only
As a matter of fact , in the decision of the 22nd Civil Chamber of the Court of Cassation dated 24.09.2018 and numbered 2015/35120 Main, 2018/19675 , it is emphasized that discrimination due to the sexual orientation of the worker is within the scope of the prohibition (although the concept of "sexual preference" is used with an incorrect terminology) : The prohibition of discrimination can be added to this, due to the employee's sexual preference that does not cause any adverse effects in the workplace. Again, discrimination based on factors such as political reasons and worldview should be protected.”
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Until Sep 24, 2018
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.

LGBT housing discrimination in Turkey

?

LGBT housing discrimination in Turkey is no protections.

Current status
Since Jan 1, 1858
No protections
In Turkey, there are currently no laws in place to prevent discrimination against LGBT individuals in the areas of work, education, housing, health care, and public accommodations.

Same-sex adoption in Turkey

?

Same-sex adoption in Turkey is single only.

Current status
Single only
LGBT Turks are deemed unfit to be parents. However, it is unclear if there is legislation to support this. It is also unclear when this policy began. However, same-sex adoptions are not permitted in Turkey; Turkish authorities have attempted to reclaim Turkish children adopted into foreign countries by same-sex couples.
Sources:
dot429.com/articles/1468-tu…

Moderator note: second (and originally the only) source has been found broken while addressing a flag. If better source is found, please report!

southfloridagaynews.com/art…
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Intersex infant surgery in Turkey

?

Intersex infant surgery in Turkey is not banned.

Current status
Not banned
There is no official ban on unnecessary sex reassignment operations in infants in Turkey.
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Serving openly in military in Turkey

?

Serving openly in military in Turkey is illegal.

Current status
Illegal
Military personnel found to be homosexual are dismissed under laws that classify homosexuality as a "psychosexual disorder/illness".

Military service for 6 months is mandatory for all men in Turkey.
In order to be exempt, gay men must prove homosexuality by providing photographic evidence of them being on the receiving end of anal intercourse.
Sources:
ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-…
web.archive.org/web/2016052…//ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2009/tr_rapport_2009_en.pdf
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Blood donations by MSMs in Turkey

?

Blood donations by MSMs in Turkey is banned (indefinite deferral).

Current status
Since 1980
Banned (indefinite deferral)
Homosexual men in Turkey cannot donate blood. The Turkish Red Crescent considers homosexuality to be a risk factor for HIV/AIDS.
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Conversion therapy in Turkey

?

Conversion therapy in Turkey is not banned.

Current status
Not banned
There are no laws banning conversion therapies.
Sources:
Constitution of the Republic of Turkey.
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Equal age of consent in Turkey

?

Equal age of consent in Turkey is equal.

Current status
Since Aug 9, 1858
Equal
The age of consent of 18 years is equal for everyone.
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