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Fandorine added an entry to Republic of the Congo.
Homosexual activity: Legal from past to now.
Fandorine added an entry to Czech Republic.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from past to now.
A legal change of gender is obtained through the local registry office. This process includes obtaining a new birth certificate or a personal identification number (called a Birth Number) and has been possible since the 1970s.
Sources: this EU Parliament report :…
Fandorine added an entry to Estonia.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from May 7, 1999 to now.
The main legislation on gender change is the “General Requirements on Medical Procedures for the Change of Gender” issued by the Minister for Social Affairs (Soovahetuse arstlike toimingute ühtsed nõuded, of 07.05.1999, no 32). This sets out the conditions for changing a person’s legal gender and allowing medical treatment for gender reassignment. It requires: • An application to the Ministry for Social Affairs; • The decision is made by a medical expert committee appointed by the Minister of Social Affairs; • Certification of transsexual identity during at least two years prior to the application; • A psychiatrist’s decision that excludes the possibility that the wish to undergo gender/sex change is caused by psychiatric disorder; • Compatibility of chromosomatic and gonad gender/sex certified by genetic research; • At least two years of treatment must pass from the beginning of medical treatment. At least one year must pass from the positive response from the Minister for Social Affairs to have the right to surgically change gender. If the Person decides otherwise during that year they are not obliged to go ahead with the change of gender.
Sources: official law :
Fandorine added an entry to Moldova.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from past to now.
Moldovan law allows for legal gender change only after ‘change of sex’. So far this has been interpreted as biological / surgical change of sex. In 2011, four individuals had successfully changed gender in law in Moldova since independence. After biological / surgical change of sex, the Moldovan Ministry of Information and Technology will issue a certificate stating that the person has changed sex. With this certificate it is possible to change all other official documents (passport, birth certificate, ID card etc).
Fandorine added an entry to Romania.
Right to change legal gender: Ambiguous from 1996 to Jan 1, 2015.
Legislation about the procedures necessary for name changes refers to the obligation to get a final court decision before changing one’s sex. However, law and procedure are unclear beyond this and consequently people seeking to change their sex undergo a long and painful process.
Sources: This report from ACCEPT, IGLHRC, and ILGA-Europe to the United Nations Human Rights Council :… art. 43.i of this law :…
Fandorine added an entry to Finland.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from Jan 1, 2003 to now.
The authorities shall recognise a person as belonging to the opposite sex to that recorded on the population register, provided he/she: • Provides a medical report testifying that he/she permanently experiences being a member of the opposite sex and that he/she lives in that gender roles and that he/she has been sterilised or is otherwise incapable of having children • He/she is an adult • He/she is not married or in a registered partnership; unless the spouse or partner gives their consent in which case a marriage become a registered partnership and a registered partnership becomes a marriage • He/she is a Finnish citizen or is resident in Finland