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Fandorine edited an entry in Republic of the Congo.
Homosexual activity: Legal from past to now.
Fandorine edited an entry in Czech Republic.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from past to now.
A legal change of gender is obtained through the local registry office. This process includes obtaining a new birth certificate or a personal identification number (called a Birth Number) and has been possible since the 1970s.
Sources: this EU Parliament report :…
Fandorine edited an entry in Estonia.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, surgery not required from Apr 6, 1992 to Apr 24, 1997.
The first transgender person to change their legal gender in independent Estonia did so on 6 April 1992. This followed a decision by a medical expert committee convened to assess her case. Her birth certificate was corrected on this date, this was viewed as a pre-requisite to any surgery, which would have otherwise been considered mutilation under the law. While gender-affirming surgery was later carried out, it was not a pre-requisite for legal gender recognition. The state of affairs was not regulated by law, but others were known to have been given authorization by the same medical expert committee to change their legal data. This was ended in around 1994, since the Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of the Interior could not agree on whether surgery should be a pre-requisite for legal gender recognition. During that time, legal gender recognition was not possible. This stand-off eventually resulted in the 1997 decree not requiring surgery for legal gender recognition, in exchange for the relevant minister signing off on every transgender person requesting such recognition.
Sources: Kalevi alt välja. LGBT+ inimeste lugusid 19. ja 20. sajandi Eestist (in Estonian). Tallinn: Eesti LGBT Ühing. ISBN 978-9916-4-1434-7.
Fandorine edited an entry in Moldova.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from past to now.
Moldovan law allows for legal gender change only after ‘change of sex’. So far this has been interpreted as biological / surgical change of sex. In 2011, four individuals had successfully changed gender in law in Moldova since independence. After biological / surgical change of sex, the Moldovan Ministry of Information and Technology will issue a certificate stating that the person has changed sex. With this certificate it is possible to change all other official documents (passport, birth certificate, ID card etc).
Fandorine edited an entry in Romania.
Right to change legal gender: N/A from Jan 1, 1995 to Jul 1, 1995.
Legislation about the procedures necessary for name changes refers to the obligation to get a final court decision before changing one’s sex. However, law and procedure are unclear beyond this and consequently people seeking to change their sex undergo a long and painful process.
Sources: This report from ACCEPT, IGLHRC, and ILGA-Europe to the United Nations Human Rights Council :… art. 43.i of this law :…
Fandorine edited an entry in Finland.
Right to change legal gender: Legal, but requires surgery from Jan 1, 2003 to Apr 3, 2023.
The authorities shall recognise a person as belonging to the opposite sex to that recorded on the population register, provided they: • Provides a medical report testifying that they permanently experience being a member of the opposite sex and that they live in the gender roles of those and that they have been sterilized or are otherwise incapable of having children • They are an adult • They are not married or in a registered partnership; unless the spouse or partner gives their consent in which case a marriage become a registered partnership and a registered partnership becomes a marriage • They are a Finnish citizen or is resident in Finland