1999 in LGBT Rights

In 1999, there were 21 recorded legal changes made affecting LGBT people. In the previous year, there were 43 changes made and 42 in the following year. A total of 260 legal changes were made in the 1990s.

  • December 30
    Same-sex marriage becomes unrecognized.
    Article 77 of the constitution states that marriage is a union between a man and a woman. There are no specific penalty related to same sex cohabitation however.
  • December 28
    Same-sex adoption becomes illegal.
    According to a study by the Council of Europe or the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights, same-sex couples cannot adopt since Article 120 of the Family Code (1999) states that joint adoption is only allowed for married couples. The report suggests that in principle, there aren't any legal restrictions around adopting as an individual — gay or straight — however, all individuals are usually denied the right to adopt.
  • LGBT housing discrimination becomes no protections.
    No
  • December 21
    Equal age of consent becomes equal.
    The age of consent is 16 years old. However, this is due to the LGBT population not being officially mentioned or recognized in the law
  • October 29
    Equal age of consent becomes equal.
    Age of consent for Anal or Vaginal sex is 14 years old.
  • July 14
    Homosexuals serving openly in military becomes legal.
  • May 29
    LGBT discrimination becomes no protections.
    Although the discrimination protection clause protect citizens against all forms of discrimination, there are also provisions within the protection against discrimination that encourages "the evolution and promotion of family life" with a family having a "traditional" family connotation.
  • LGBT employment discrimination becomes no protections.
    No
  • LGBT housing discrimination becomes no protections.
    Homosexuality is still illegal there.
  • May 19
    Same-sex adoption becomes legal.
    M v. H (Canada) rules that Constitution protects same-sex couples.
  • May 7
    Right to change legal gender becomes legal, but requires surgery.
    The main legislation on gender change is the “General Requirements on Medical Procedures for the Change of Gender” issued by the Minister for Social Affairs (Soovahetuse arstlike toimingute ühtsed nõuded, of 07.05.1999, no 32). This sets out the conditions for changing a person’s legal gender and allowing medical treatment for gender reassignment. It requires: • An application to the Ministry for Social Affairs; • The decision is made by a medical expert committee appointed by the Minister of Social Affairs; • Certification of transsexual identity during at least two years prior to the application; • A psychiatrist’s decision that excludes the possibility that the wish to undergo gender/sex change is caused by psychiatric disorder; • Compatibility of chromosomatic and gonad gender/sex certified by genetic research; • At least two years of treatment must pass from the beginning of medical treatment. At least one year must pass from the positive response from the Minister for Social Affairs to have the right to surgically change gender. If the Person decides otherwise during that year they are not obliged to go ahead with the change of gender.
  • April 18
    LGBT discrimination becomes illegal.
  • LGBT employment discrimination becomes sexual orientation and gender identity.
    Article 8 of the Constitution
  • LGBT housing discrimination becomes sexual orientation and gender identity.
  • January 19
    Homosexual activity becomes legal.
    Settlement of Williams v. Glendening, Baltimore Circuit Court.
  • (date unknown)
    Homosexuals serving openly in military becomes legal.
  • Homosexuals serving openly in military becomes legal.
    The same law applies to the Mainland and to the Regions
  • January 1
    Equal age of consent becomes equal.
  • January
    LGBT employment discrimination becomes sexual orientation only.
    Ireland's Employment Equality Act, 1998, and the Equal Status Act, 2000 outlawed discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
  • January 1
    LGBT employment discrimination becomes sexual orientation and gender identity.
    Employment discimination due to sexual orientation (1999), change of legal gender (1996), crossgender identity and expression (2009) are illegal.
  • (date unknown)
    Conversion therapy becomes banned.
    Banned by Brazil's Federal Psychology Council: "psychologists shall not collaborate in events or services offering treatment and cure for homosexuality."

LGBT Organizations Founded in 1999

  • Hegoak FaviconHegoak
    Hegoak is a non-profit association focused on deepening the freedom of expression and sexual-affective life from a progressive and transforming viewpoint. It is based in Bilbao…
  • LifeLong Adoptions FaviconLifeLong Adoptions
    LifeLong Adoptions is an organization specializing in LGBT adoptions. Their mission is to keep the adoption process affordable while creating the bond between Birthmothers and…